ROCL has maintaining a world class Olive Nursery having capacity of 20 lakh plants annually of 7 leading Olive Varieties.
These Varieties are as follows :
2. Barnea Olive
7. Picual Olive
1. Arbequina Olive Plant
Variety : Arbequina
Origin : Spain
Purpose : Oil
The Tree : Arbequina is one of the main varieties planted in Spain and has been widely planted in Argentina where it is one of the most productive varieties. The tree is hardy, has low vigour and a spreading medium to dense canopy. It comes into production early and has high and constant production.
The Fruit : The fruit of Arbequina is small and spherical with no nipple and a few small lenticels. The fruit ripens unevenly and matures early to mid season.
The Oil : Arbequina produces a high yield of very good quality oil. The oil is rated highly mainly for its good organoleptic characteristics. The reduced levels of oleic acid and relatively low level of polyphenols in the oil lead to its low stability.
Agronomic Characteristics : Because of the trees lower vigour, it has been used in more intensive groves. The fruit is small which may cause problems if harvesting using shakers; the new over the row continuous harvester being developed and introduced into Australia should suit this variety. The flowering time of Arbequina is intermediate and it is considered self-compatible. This is a hardy variety resistant to cold and tolerant to salinity.
Variety : Barnea
Origin : Israel
Purpose : Oil
The Tree : Barnea is a vigorous tree with an erect growth habit and sparse canopy. This variety responds very well to modern olive production techniques and is ideally suited to mechanical harvesting. It comes into production early and has high and constant productivity under irrigation.
The Fruit : Barnea was bred for oil production but can be used for green or black table olives. The fruit is medium sized, not dissimilar to Kalamata in appearance. It is elongated with a nipple and many large lenticels. Barnea is a very productive variety and the fruit has a low attachment facilitating mechanical harvesting. The fruit ripens early to intermediate.
The Oil : The oil content is medium to high and it is relatively easy to extract. The character of the oil is mild and smooth and provides the opportunity to blend with oil from other varieties. Initial harvests in Australia of oil from this variety have been very well received wining prizes at many oil shows in Australia and Italy. The smooth and subtle character of Barnea is one that consumers not accustomed to the bitter and more pungent character oils will be able to appreciate.
Agronomic Characteristics : Barnea was bred in Israel specifically for modern olive production methods. Its responds extremely well to irrigation and comes into production early in its life. Because of its erect growth habit it suitable to be planted slightly closer together than other varieties. In Israel the Barnea produces commercial returns in year three. In Australia Barnea needs cross-pollination to maximise fruit set. Picholine is the preferred pollinator in Israel; however in Australia we have seen good results with Picual and Manzanillo as well. Barnea is not as tolerant to certain adverse conditions as some other varieties. Barnea is particularly tolerant of peacock spot but is sensitive verticillium wilt and frosts.
Variety : Coratina
Origin : Italy
Purpose : Oil
The Tree : Coratina is one of the most important Italian varieties, especially favoured in the area of Puglia, the largest olive growing area of Italy. This variety adapts very well to different growing environments and conditions.
The Fruit : The fruit is large and oval with no nipple and many small lenticels. The fruit ripens evenly and late in the season. In some years it is also suitable for green table olives.
The Oil : Coratina produces very high quality oil with high levels of polyphenols making it very stable. In Italy the oil produced from Coratina is intensely fruity and pungent. Interestingly these sought after oil characteristics are present in oils produced from Coratina in completely different growing areas like Argentina.
Agronomic Characteristics : Coratina comes into bearing very early and productivity is high and constant. This variety has shown some susceptibility to sooty mould. Coratina is tolerant of cold and in some areas of its native Italy it is planted as a pollinator; however Coratina should be planted with other varieties for cross-pollination.
Comments : This variety will be extremely useful for groves wanting to lengthen their harvesting period as it ripens latter than just about all other varieties.
Variety : Frantoio
Origin : Tuscany, Italy
Purpose : Oil
The Tree : Frantoio is of medium vigour and has a drooping medium dense canopy. It has an intermediate start to bearing, a constant and high productivity and is renowned for its adaptability. The Frantoio variety is the main variety of Tuscany and famous throughout the world.
The Fruit : The fruit is oval shaped of medium size without a nipple and many small lenticels. The fruit ripens late in the season and is phased; however oil accumulation is much earlier with an early to intermediate harvest period.
The Oil : Frantoio produces exceptionally high quality olive oil that is highly regarded around the world. The oil is well balanced and fruity and has good stability. It is also easy to process.
Agronomic Characteristics : Frantoio is highly productive with consistently heavy yields. Frantoio is sensitive to cold and peacock spot. Foliage is a deep green colour. Frantoio has good quality pollen but benefits from cross-pollination to maximise production. In Tuscany it is usually planted with Leccino and cross pollinated with Pendolino.
Comments : This variety is established in more countries than any other. Frantoio is the world's best known oil producing olive and well renowned for the flavour of oil that it produces. Its performance in some of the warmer areas of Australia is yet to be proved.
5. Koroneiki Olive Plant
Variety : Koroneiki
Origin : Greece
Purpose : Oil
The Tree : Koroneiki is the main oil variety in Greece . The tree has medium to low vigour with a spreading and sparse canopy. It comes into production early and its productivity is high and constant. It has a medium rooting ability and is sometimes grafted.
The Fruit : The fruit is ovoid and small, (approx 1-2 grams) and so harvesting by shaker will be limited. Koroneiki ripens in the early to middle of the season.
The Oil : The oil content of Koroneiki is high and is rated highly. The oil has a high level of oleic acid and is very stable.
Agronomic Characteristics : Koroneiki flowers early and produces abundant pollen but should be planted with pollinators. This variety is resistant to drought but does not tolerate cold. It is resistant to peacock spot and moderately resistant to verticillium wilt.
6. Picholine Olive Plant
Variety : Picholine
Origin : France
Purpose : Dual
The Tree : Picholine is of medium vigour with a spreading semi dense canopy. It comes into bearing early and is able to adapt to different environmental conditions. Under irrigation productivity is high and constant.
The Fruit : The most important French table olive variety as far as market share is concerned. Fruit shape is elongated and oval with no nipple, fruit size is similar to the Kalamata. The flesh to pit ratio is 4.8:1. The fruit is very evenly sized with low rejection rates when processed for the table. This fruit pickles best for green table fruit and has a free stone. Picholine will ripen mid to late season.
The Oil : Picholine gives a medium oil yield. The oil is superbly balanced and palatable fresh off the press without the overpowering bitterness associated with some oils before they settle. Picholine produces a top quality oil with a fruity character.
Agronomic Characteristics : Picholine produces heavy and consistent yields. In New Zealand it shows little sign of any bi-annual bearing. Responds well to irrigation, meaning that when water is applied the yield of fruit is significantly increased. The tree is cold tolerant and especially resistant to peacock spot. Picholine produces significant amounts of pollen, with high germination capacity and in Israel it is regarded as a good pollinator for Barnea.
Comments : Early production from this variety in Australia has produced some high quality, well-balanced and exciting oil.
Variety : Picual
Origin : Spain
Purpose : Oil
The Tree : Picual is a medium vigour tree with a spreading and dense canopy. It comes into production early. In Australia it has started to bear heavy commercial crops before most other varieties. It shows constant and high productivity and is very hardy. The Picual variety represents about 90% of the olive trees planted in the Jaen region of Andalucia , Spain , the largest olive growing area in the world.
The Fruit : Fruit shape is oval and curved with a nipple on the end. Both oil content and yield are high. The fruit ripens mid to late season. During the first years, fruits tend to be larger than normal and they are highly rated for pickling as black olives for the firmness of their flesh.
The Oil : The oil yield of Picual is high, although it is known to be variable in the first years. The oil is of good quality with a very particular character and extraordinarily high stability. Picual oil is often blended with other oils that have low stability.
Agronomic Characteristics : Picual is highly rated for its early start to bearing and its high productivity. The fruit has low attachment making it suitable for mechanical harvesting. It is tolerant of cold, salinity and excess soil moisture. Picual is self-compatible, and in Australia is proving to be a good pollinator for a number of other varieties. Picual is a hardy variety and adapts well to different climates and soil conditions. It is sensitive to verticillium wilt and peacock spot.
Comments : Picual is performing outstandingly in many areas of Australia . During 2002 harvesting season, 20,000 32-month-old trees in a grove in northern Victoria have achieved an average of 15 kilograms per tree or just over 6 tonnes per hectare.